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Glossary

Middle Primary/Middle Schooling - Speaking

bilingual
A person who knows and uses two languages. [See Richards, J.C., Platt, J. & Platt, H. (1992)]
code
Any distinct variety of language. [See Matthews, P.H. (1997)]
code-mix
Using of two languages in order to communicate, eg. may begin a conversation in the second language but revert to using aspects of the first language when necessary to give meaning/ to elaborate.
code-switch
Switching from one language, dialect, etc to another. [See Matthews, P.H. (1997)]
Conductive Hearing Loss
hearing loss as a result of otitis media
context
The situational aspects of any spoken or written text including the audience and the purpose associated with the text [See Extract from LINC Glossary in McKay, P., Sapuppo, M. and Hudson, C. (1994)]
creole
A pidgin language which has become the native language of a group of speakers, being used for all or many of their daily communicative needs. [See Matthews, P.H. (1997)]
dialect
A variety of language, spoken in one part of a country which is different in some words, grammar and/or pronunciation from other forms of the same language. [See Richards, J.C., Platt, J. & Platt, H. (1992)]
*Discourse
any naturally occurring stretch of language, spoken or written
ESL
English as a Second Language
*Formulaic Language
a segment of language made up of several morphemes or words which are learned together and used as if they were a single item, e.g. How are you?, No way.
formulaic social language
Also known as 'routine language' A segment of language made up of several morphemes or words which are learned together and used as if they were a single item. For e.g., How are you? To whom it may concern, Best wishes.[See Richards, J.C., Platt, J. & Platt, H. (1992)]
HL
This represents the language or dialect that the student speaks at home. This may be a traditional indigenous language, a Creole or a dialect of English, e.g. Kala Kawaw Ya, Wik Mungkun, Torres Strait Creole, Aboriginal English. Note that many children are exposed to multi-lingual settings in their home environment.
*Interlocutor
the participant actively engaged in conversation.
literate
To be literate in the 21st century one must have ' the flexible and sustainable mastery of a repertoire of practices with the texts of traditional and new communications technologies via spoken language, print, and multimedia, and the ability to use these practices in various social contexts. [Anstey, M. (2002) Literate Futures: Reading p.15. Adapted from Literate Futures: Report, p.9]
*Literacy Set
concepts and awareness of print upon which literacy development can be based, e.g. confidence in use of oral language, understanding of basic conventions of print, knowledge of signs and labels, awareness of some of the basic elements of stories.
Mainstream Students
Those students who come to school with SAE as a home language.
Otitis Media
also known as middle ear infection or glue ear.
pidgin
A simplified form of speech, developed as a medium of trade, or through other extended but limited contact, between groups of speakers who have no other language in common. [See Matthews, P.H. (1997)]
SAE
Standard Australian English.
shame
For Torres Strait Islanders, shame is 'a mixture of embarrassment and discomfort caused by one's own behaviour or that of someone for whom one is responsible. [See Shnukal, A. (1996)]
*Silent Period
a period of time (ranging from a few days to a few months) during which students learning a second language are acquiring knowledge of the language but are not yet ready to speak. They may, however, use non-verbal behaviour. It is a normal part of communicative behaviour. Some children may not go through the 'silent period'.[See McKay, P., Sapuppo, M. and Hudson, C. (1994)]
speech variety
A term sometimes used instead of language, dialect, sociolect, pidgin, Creole, etc. because it is considered more neutral than such terms. It may also be used for different varieties of one language, e.g. American English, Australian English, Indian English. [See Richards, J.C., Platt, J. & Platt, H. (1992)]
structure
A sequence of linguistic units that are in a certain relationship to one another. [See Richards, J.C., Platt, J. & Platt, H. (1992)]
target language
The language being learnt as a second language

* Extract from Glossary contained in "The ESL Bandscales." In NLLIA ESL Development: Language and Literacy in Schools. Canberra: National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia 1994.

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References

Anstey, M. (2002) Literate Futures: Reading. Coorparoo: AccessEd, Education Queensland, Queensland Government.

Education Queensland. (2000) Literate Futures: Report of the Literacy Review for Queensland State Schools. Brisbane: State of Queensland (Department of Education)

Matthews, P.H. (1997) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Richards, J.C., Platt, J. & Platt, H. (1992) Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. Singapore: Longman Singapore Publishers Pty Ltd.

Shnukal, A. (1996) Language in Learning at Thursday Island High School, Australian Journal of Indigenous Education Vol.24, No.2. p.49

McKay, P., Sapuppo, M. and Hudson, C. The ESL Bandscales. In NLLIA ESL Development: Language and Literacy in Schools. (1994) Canberra: National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia.

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