Shot put


​Guideline review date: 28 October 2021​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​

This guideline is provided to support schools in implementing the managing risks in school curriculum activities procedure.

The CARA planner (DOCX, 600KB) must be used for the specific school context in conjunction with this guideline considering additional risks, hazards and controls and including environmental, facility, equipment and student considerations.

For activities beyond the scope of this guideline, complete a CARA record using the CARA generic template (DOCX, 488KB).

Activity scope

This guideline relates to student participation in shot put as an activity to support curriculum delivery.

For activities conducted at a non-Department of Education venue, and/or when engaging external expertise, request written risk assessment advice and attach it to this CARA record.

For activities conducted off-site, schools must comply with the school excursions procedure.

For activities conducted as part of representative school sport programs, schools should consult with Queensland School Sport​.​

Medium risk
Shot put activities involving a metal shot.

Activity requirements

If any requirement cannot be met, the activity must not occur.

If any other safety recommendation cannot be met, modify the activity (or elements of it) and/or identify and use the hierarchy of controls​ to implement alternative control measures to meet or exceed the minimum safety standard.

Competition rules and procedures with additional or more stringent safety requirements must take precedence​.​​


Parent consent (DOCX, 306KB) is required for all activities conducted off-site.


Principals make final supervision decisions for the activity. Sufficient adult supervision must be provided to manage the activity safely (including emergency situations).

For activities with students with a medical condition or disability that may impact on safety during the activity, consultation with parents is required prior to allocating supervision to determine the impact of students’ medical condition or disability on safety during the activity.

The number of adult supervisors required to fulfil emergency and supervision roles must consider the nature of the activity, students’ ages, abilities and specialised learning, access and/or health needs.

Rotational throwing technique only to be taught to small groups with demonstrated competence in linear (glide) technique, as determined by the qualified adult supervisor.

Before the activity, all adult supervisors:

  • must be familiar with the contents of the CARA record
  • must assess weather conditions prior to undertaking the activity, inspecting the intended location in order to identify variable risks, hazards and potential dangers.

During the activity, all adult supervisors:

  • must be readily identifiable
  • must closely monitor students with health support needs
  • must confine throwing to occur in one direction only
  • must closely supervise the throwing and landing areas at all times
  • must ensure participants do not throw until these areas are clear
  • must comply with control measures from the CARA record and adapt as hazards arise
  • must suspend the activity if the conditions become unfavourable (e.g. poor visibility, extreme temperatures, thunderstorms)
  • must not allow return throwing.

Supervisor qualifications

Principals make final decisions in determining supervisor capability (competence, relevance and currency) and are responsible for encouraging and enabling school-based activity supervisors to raise their qualifications to improve safety standards.

All adult supervisors must comply with the working with children authority—blue cards procedure and be able to identify, and respond to, risks or hazards that may emerge during the activity.

A registered teacher must be appointed to maintain overall responsibility for the activity.

At least 1 adult supervisor is required to be:

  • a registered teacher with competence (knowledge and skills) in teaching shot put; or
  • an adult supervisor, working under the direct supervision of a registered teacher, with current Level 1 Community Coach accreditation from Athletics Australia (for glide or step back technique) or current Level 2 Club Coach accreditation from Athletics Australia (for rotational technique).

Facilities and equipment

The qualified adult supervisor of the activity, in consultation with the principal, determines the requirements for facilities and equipment appropriate to the local context.

Location must be suitable for the activity being undertaken, including sufficient space to ensure safe participation and that safety rules and procedures can be followed.

Participants must wear personal protective equipment appropriate to the activity (e.g. enclosed footwear).

Equipment must be sized to match the ability and strength of students.

Clearly defined throwing and landing areas that considers the ability of the group. Use highly visible markers.

Lines marked on grass in accordance with the line marking of sports fields fact sheet.

 Common hazards and controls

Further to those listed, include any additional hazards and control measures considering the local context of the activity.

Environmental hazards Control measures

Biological hazards
Body fluids (e.g. blood, saliva, sweat)

Manage bodily substances (e.g. blood) and open wounds before, during and after the activity. Consult infection control guidelines and Queensland Health's exclusion periods for infectious conditions poster (PDF, 1.5MB) for hygienic practices and first aid.

Follow appropriate cleaning and hygiene management practices when using shared equipment (Departmental staff search "cleaning advice for shared equipment" in OnePortal).

Environmental conditions
Weather, sun, humidity

The school's sun safety strategy must be followed.

Follow the managing excessive heat in schools guidelines when participating in very hot or extreme heat conditions.

Ensure drink breaks occur regularly. Make water available for individual participants between drink breaks.

Dry equipment (including shots) before each throw if conditions cause dampness.

Facilities and equipment hazards Control measures
Fast moving objects
Shot put

Position throwers at least 3 metres apart during group instruction using a linear throw technique with a regular shot.

Position non-throwers at least 5 metres behind the throwing area. Mark exclusion zones clearly.

Position left-handed throwers on the left side of the group during group instruction.

Instruct participants to check the throwing and landing areas are clear before commencing preparation to throw.

When using the rotational technique:

  • ­undertake group instruction to practise without a shot or with modified equipment
  • ­consider the use of protective cages or improvised barriers (e.g. fence, nets) to undertake individual instruction with a regular shot
  • ­allow only 1 throw at a time.

Faulty or dangerous equipment

Check equipment for damage before and during the activity (e.g. cracked shots). Withdraw any damaged equipment from use.

Ensure stop boards are secured at the front of the circle and pegs (if used) do not pose a hazard.

Playing surface

Clear the circle, immediate surrounds and throwing areas from loose items or debris. Do not participate on a slippery surface.

Perform rotational throws on a firm surface only, preferably concrete.

Wear appropriate footwear for the type of activity (i.e. training or competition), surface and age of participants.

Student considerations Control measures

Manual handling
Lifting and carrying equipment

Carry shots safely. If transporting multiple shots at one time, ensure the total weight is appropriate for the person carrying them.

Use correct manual handling processes when lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling or carrying.

Physical exertion
Exhaustion and fatigue

Continually monitor participants for signs of fatigue and exhaustion.

Student issues

Remove accessories (e.g. jewellery, lanyard) before participating.

Ensure fingernails and hair do not interfere with the activity.

Conduct warm-up/cool-down activities.

Monitor and enforce the correct approach, throw and retrieval safety procedures.

Practise the rotational technique without a shot or with a modified shot (e.g. cricket/softball).

Implement procedures (e.g. roll marking mechanisms) to prevent separation from the group when participating off site.

 Additional links


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Last updated 14 July 2022